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(1) (General) The treatment of textile material in a bath of liquid, usually, although not necessarily, without agitation. The term is also applied to processes whereby the materials are impregnated with a liquor, highly squeezed, and then allowed to lie.

(2) In rayon manufacture, the process of immersing the dissolving pulp in a solution of sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) of mercerizing strength (17-20%). The purpose of this treatment is twofold: (a) to produce alkali-cellulose, and (b) to remove soluble impurities from the pulp. The operation is controlled by time and temperature.

(3) The process of retting flax straw by immersion in an aqueous liquor.

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